Compiled code produced by raco make relies on Racket executables to provide run-time support to the compiled code. However, raco exe can package code together with its run-time support to form an executable, and raco distribute can package the executable into a distribution that works on other machines. Running an executable produced by raco exe will not improve performance over raco make.
The raco exe command embeds a module, from source or byte code, into a copy of the racket executable. (On Unix, the embedding executable is actually a copy of a wrapper executable.) The created executable invokes the embedded module on startup. The --gui flag causes the program to be embedded in a copy of the gracket executable. If the embedded module refers to other modules via require, then the other modules are also included in the embedding executable.
For example, the command
raco exe --gui hello.rkt
produces either "hello.exe" (Windows), "hello.app" (Mac OS X), or "hello" (Unix), which runs the same as running the "hello.rkt" module in gracket.
Library modules or other files that are referenced
Modules that are implemented directly by extensions—
The raco exe command works only with module-based programs. The compiler/embed library provides a more general interface to the embedding mechanism.
A stand-alone executable is “stand-alone” in the sense that you can run it without starting racket, gracket, or DrRacket. However, the executable depends on Racket shared libraries, and possibly other run-time files declared via define-runtime-path. The executable can be packaged with support libraries to create a distribution using raco distribute, as described in raco distribute: Sharing Stand-Alone Executables.
The raco exe command accepts the following command-line flags:
-o ‹file› —
create the executable as ‹file›, adding a suffix to ‹file› as appropriate for the platform and executable type. On Mac OS X in --gui mode, ‹file› is actually a bundle directory, but it appears as a file within Finder.
create a graphical executable based on gracket instead of racket.
--config-path ‹path› —
set ‹path› within the executable as the path to the configuration directory; if the path is relative, it will be treated as relative to the executable. The default path is "etc", with the expectation that no such directory will exist at run time.
--collects-path ‹path› —
set ‹path› within the executable as the path to the main collection directory; if the path is relative, it will be treated as relative to the executable. The default is to have no path, which means that the current-library-collection-paths and current-library-collection-links parameters are initialized at empty when the executable starts. Beware that various other directories are located relative to the main collection directory by default (see Installation Configuration and Search Paths), so that installing ‹path› may allow other directories to be found— intentional or not.
--collects-dest ‹path› —
write modules to be included with the executable into ‹path› (relative to the current directory), instead of embedded within the executable. The --collects-dest flag normally makes sense only in combination with --collects-path. This mode currently does not prune unreferenced submodules (and it pulls along any dependencies of submodules).
--ico ‹.ico-path› —
on Windows, set the icons for the generated executable to ones extracted from ‹.ico-path›; see create-embedding-executable’s use of the 'ico auxiliary association for more information about expected icon sizes and transformations.
--icns ‹.icns-path› —
on Mac OS X, set the icons for the generated executable to be the content of ‹.icns-path›.
generate an executable that refers to the original racket or gracket executable, instead of making a copy. This flag is rarely useful, because the part of the executable that is copied is normally small, and raco distribute does not work with executables that are created with --orig-exe.
++aux ‹file› —
attach information to the executable based on ‹file›’s suffix; see extract-aux-from-path for a list of recognized suffixes and meanings, and see create-embedding-executable’s use of auxiliary association for more specific information about how each kind of file is used.
++lib ‹module-path› —
include ‹module-path› in the executable, even if it is not referenced by the main program, so that it is available via dynamic-require.
++exfl ‹flag› —
provide the ‹flag› command-line argument on startup to the embedded racket or gracket.
--exfl ‹flag› —
remove ‹flag› from the command-line arguments to be provided on startup to the embedded racket or gracket.
remove all command-line arguments to be provided on startup to the embedded racket or gracket.
show (without changing) the command-line arguments to be provided on startup to the embedded racket or gracket.
report progress verbosely.
report progress more verbosely than -v.
Embedding walks the module dependency graph to find all modules needed by some initial set of top-level modules, compiling them if needed, and combining them into a “module bundle.” In addition to the module code, the bundle extends the module name resolver, so that modules can be required with their original names, and they will be retrieved from the bundle instead of the filesystem.
The create-embedding-executable function combines the bundle with an executable (Racket or GRacket). The write-module-bundle function prints the bundle to the current output port, instead; this stream can be loaded directly by a running program, as long as the read-accept-compiled parameter is true.
(create-embedding-executable dest #:modules mod-list [ #:early-literal-expressions early-literal-sexps #:configure-via-first-module? config-via-first? #:literal-files literal-files #:literal-expression literal-sexp #:literal-expressions literal-sexps #:cmdline cmdline #:gracket? gracket? #:mred? mred? #:variant variant #:aux aux #:collects-path collects-path #:collects-dest collects-dest #:launcher? launcher? #:verbose? verbose? #:expand-namespace expand-namespace #:compiler compile-proc #:src-filter src-filter #:on-extension ext-proc #:get-extra-imports extras-proc]) → void? dest : path-string?
(listof (or/c (list/c (or/c symbol? (one-of/c #t #f)) (or/c module-path? path?)) (list/c (or/c symbol? (one-of/c #t #f)) (or/c module-path? path?) (listof symbol?)))) early-literal-sexps : list? = null config-via-first? : any/c = #f literal-files : (listof path-string?) = null literal-sexp : any/c = #f
literal-sexps : list? =
(if literal-sexp (list literal-sexp) null) cmdline : (listof string?) = null gracket? : any/c = #f mred? : any/c = #f variant : (or/c 'cgc '3m) = (system-type 'gc) aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c)) = null
(or/c #f path-string? (listof path-string?)) = #f collects-dest : (or/c #f path-string?) = #f launcher? : any/c = #f verbose? : any/c = #f expand-namespace : namespace? = (current-namespace)
compile-proc : (any/c . -> . compiled-expression?) =
(lambda (e) (parameterize ([current-namespace expand-namespace]) (compile e))) src-filter : (path? . -> . any) = (lambda (p) #t) ext-proc : (or/c #f (path-string? boolean? . -> . any)) = #f
(path? compiled-module-expression? . -> . (listof module-path?)) = (lambda (p m) null)
The embedding executable is written to dest, which is overwritten if it exists already (as a file or directory).
The embedded code consists of module declarations followed by additional (arbitrary) code. When a module is embedded, every module that it imports is also embedded. Library modules are embedded so that they are accessible via their lib paths in the initial namespace except as specified in mod-list, other modules (accessed via local paths and absolute paths) are embedded with a generated prefix, so that they are not directly accessible.
The #:modules argument mod-list designates modules to be embedded, as described below. The #:early-literal-expressions, #:literal-files, and #:literal-expressions arguments specify literal code to be copied into the executable: each element of early-literal-sexps is copied in order, then the content of each file in literal-files in order (with no intervening spaces), and then each element of literal-sexps. The literal-files files or early-literal-sexps or literal-sexps lists can contain compiled bytecode, and it’s possible that the content of the literal-files files only parse when concatenated; the files and expression are not compiled or inspected in any way during the embedding process. Beware that the initial namespace contains no bindings; use compiled expressions to bootstrap the namespace. The #:literal-expression (singular) argument is for backward compatibility.
If the #:configure-via-first-module? argument is specified as true, then the language of the first module in mod-list is used to configure the run-time environment before the expressions added by #:literal-files and #:literal-expressions are evaluated, but after the expressions of #:early-literal-expressions. See also Language Run-Time Configuration.
The #:cmdline argument cmdline contains command-line strings that are prefixed onto any actual command-line arguments that are provided to the embedding executable. A command-line argument that evaluates an expression or loads a file will be executed after the embedded code is loaded.
Each element of the #:modules argument mod-list is a two- or three-item list, where the first item is a prefix for the module name, and the second item is a module path datum (that’s in the format understood by the default module name resolver), and the third is a list of submodule names to be included if they are available. The prefix can be a symbol, #f to indicate no prefix, or #t to indicate an auto-generated prefix. For example,
embeds the module m from the file "m.rkt", without prefixing the name of the module; the literal-sexpr argument to go with the above might be '(require m). When submodules are available and included, the submodule is given a name by symbol-appending the write form of submodule path to the enclosing module’s name.
Modules are normally compiled before they are embedded into the target executable; see also #:compiler and #:src-filter below. When a module declares run-time paths via define-runtime-path, the generated executable records the path (for use both by immediate execution and for creating a distribution that contains the executable).
If collects-dest is a path instead of #f, then instead of embedding collection-based modules into the executable, the modules (in compiled form, only) are copied into collections in the collects-dest directory.
The optional #:aux argument is an association list for platform-specific options (i.e., it is a list of pairs where the first element of the pair is a key symbol and the second element is the value for that key). See also build-aux-from-path. The currently supported keys are as follows:
'icns (Mac OS X) : An icon file path (suffix ".icns") to use for the executable’s desktop icon.
'ico (Windows) : An icon file path (suffix ".ico") to use for the executable’s desktop icon.
Changed in version 6.3 of package base: All icons in the executable are replaced with icons from the file, instead of setting only certain sizes and depths.
'creator (Mac OS X) : Provides a 4-character string to use as the application signature.
'file-types (Mac OS X) : Provides a list of association lists, one for each type of file handled by the application; each association is a two-element list, where the first (key) element is a string recognized by Finder, and the second element is a plist value (see xml/plist). See "drracket.filetypes" in the "drracket" collection for an example.
'uti-exports (Mac OS X) : Provides a list of association lists, one for each Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) exported by the executable; each association is a two-element list, where the first (key) element is a string recognized in a UTI declaration, and the second element is a plist value (see xml/plist). See "drracket.utiexports" in the "drracket" collection for an example.
'resource-files (Mac OS X) : extra files to copy into the "Resources" directory of the generated executable.
'config-dir : A string/path to a directory that contains configuration information, such as "config.rtkd" (see Installation Configuration and Search Paths). If no value is supplied, the path is left as-is and converted to absolute form as needed. If #f is supplied, the path is left as-is (in potentially relative form). Note that if collects-path is provided as an empty list, then the configuration-directory path is not used by Racket’s start up process (in contrast to a normal Racket start-up, where the configuration directory is consulted for information about collection link files).
'framework-root (Mac OS X) : A string to prefix the executable’s path to the Racket and GRacket frameworks (including a separating slash); note that when the prefix starts "@executable_path/" works for a Racket-based application, the corresponding prefix start for a GRacket-based application is "@executable_path/../../../"; if #f is supplied, the executable’s framework path is left as-is, otherwise the original executable’s path to a framework is converted to an absolute path if it was relative.
'dll-dir (Windows) : A string/path to a directory that contains Racket DLLs needed by the executable, such as "racket‹version›.dll", or a boolean; a path can be relative to the executable; if #f is supplied, the path is left as-is; if #t is supplied, the path is dropped (so that the DLLs must be in the system directory or the user’s PATH); if no value is supplied the original executable’s path to DLLs is converted to an absolute path if it was relative.
'subsystem (Windows) : A symbol, either 'console for a console application or 'windows for a consoleless application; the default is 'console for a Racket-based application and 'windows for a GRacket-based application; see also 'single-instance?, below.
'single-instance? (Windows) : A boolean for GRacket-based apps; the default is #t, which means that the app looks for instances of itself on startup and merely brings the other instance to the front; #f means that multiple instances are expected.
'forget-exe? (Windows, Mac OS X) : A boolean; #t for a launcher (see launcher? below) does not preserve the original executable name for (find-system-path 'exec-file); the main consequence is that library collections will be found relative to the launcher instead of the original executable.
'original-exe? (Unix) : A boolean; #t means that the embedding uses the original Racket or GRacket executable, instead of a wrapper binary that execs the original; the default is #f.
'relative? (Unix, Windows, Mac OS X) : A boolean; #t means that, to the degree that the generated executable must refer to another, it can use a relative path (so the executables can be moved together, but not separately), and it implies #f for 'config-dir, 'framework-dir, and 'dll-dir, unless those are explicitly provided; a #f value (the default) means that absolute paths should be used (so the generated executable can be moved).
'wm-class (Unix) : A string; used as the default WM_CLASS program class for the program’s windows.
If the #:collects-path argument is #f, then the
created executable maintains its built-in (relative) path to the main
If the #:launcher? argument is #t, then lid-list should be null, literal-files should be null, literal-sexp should be #f, and the platform should be Windows or Mac OS X. The embedding executable is created in such a way that (find-system-path 'exec-file) produces the source Racket or GRacket path instead of the embedding executable (but the result of (find-system-path 'run-file) is still the embedding executable).
The #:compiler argument is used to compile the source of modules to be included in the executable (when a compiled form is not already available). It should accept a single argument that is a syntax object for a module form. The default procedure uses compile parameterized to set the current namespace to expand-namespace.
The #:expand-namespace argument selects a namespace for expanding extra modules (and for compiling using the default compile-proc). Extra-module expansion is needed to detect run-time path declarations in included modules, so that the path resolutions can be directed to the current locations (and, ultimately, redirected to copies in a distribution).
The #:src-filter src-filter argument takes a path and returns true if the corresponding file source should be included in the embedding executable in source form (instead of compiled form), #f otherwise. The default returns #f for all paths. Beware that the current output port may be redirected to the result executable when the filter procedure is called. Each path given to src-filter corresponds to the actual file name (e.g., ".ss"/".rkt" conversions have been applied as needed to refer to the existing file).
If the #:on-extension argument is a procedure, the procedure is called when the traversal of module dependencies arrives at an extension (i.e., a DLL or shared object). The default, #f, causes a reference to a single-module extension (in its current location) to be embedded into the executable. The procedure is called with two arguments: a path for the extension, and a #f (for historical reasons).
The #:get-extra-imports extras-proc argument takes a source pathname and compiled module for each module to be included in the executable. It returns a list of quoted module paths (absolute, as opposed to relative to the module) for extra modules to be included in the executable in addition to the modules that the source module requires. For example, these modules might correspond to reader extensions needed to parse a module that will be included as source, as long as the reader is referenced through an absolute module path. Each path given to extras-proc corresponds to the actual file name (e.g., ".ss"/".rkt" conversions have been applied as needed to refer to the existing file).
(make-embedding-executable dest mred? verbose? mod-list literal-files literal-sexp cmdline [ aux launcher? variant collects-path]) → void? dest : path-string? mred? : any/c verbose? : any/c
(listof (or/c (list/c (or/c symbol? (one-of/c #t #f)) (or/c module-path? path?)) (list/c (or/c symbol? (one-of/c #t #f)) (or/c module-path? path?) (listof symbol?)))) literal-files : (listof path-string?) literal-sexp : any/c cmdline : (listof string?) aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c)) = null launcher? : any/c = #f variant : (one-of/c 'cgc '3m) = (system-type 'gc)
(or/c #f path-string? (listof path-string?)) = #f
(write-module-bundle verbose? mod-list literal-files literal-sexp) → void? verbose? : any/c
(listof (or/c (list/c (or/c symbol? (one-of/c #t #f)) (or/c module-path? path?)) (list/c (or/c symbol? (one-of/c #t #f)) (or/c module-path? path?) (listof symbol?)))) literal-files : (listof path-string?) literal-sexp : any/c
If Racket/GRacket launchers for the current platform were directories form the user’s perspective, the style result is suitable for use with get-directory, and the extension result may be a string indicating a required extension for the directory name.
(embedding-executable-add-suffix path mred?) → path-string? path : path-string? mred? : any/c
|(require compiler/embed-sig)||package: compiler-lib|
compiler:embed^ : signature
|(require compiler/embed-unit)||package: compiler-lib|
|(require compiler/find-exe)||package: base|
cross? : any/c = #f gracket? : any/c = #f
variant : (or/c 'cgc '3m) =
(if cross? (cross-system-type 'gc) (system-type 'gc))
If cross? is true, the executable is found for the target platform in cross-installation mode.
Changed in version 6.3 of package base: Added the #:cross? argument.
A launcher is similar to a stand-alone executable, but a launcher is usually smaller and can be created more quickly, because it depends permanently on the local Racket installation and the program’s sources. In the case of Unix, a launcher is simply a shell script that runs racket or gracket. Launchers cannot be packaged into a distribution using raco distribute. The raco exe command creates a launcher when the -l or --launcher flag is specified.
|(require launcher/launcher)||package: base|
The optional aux argument is an association list for platform-specific options (i.e., it is a list of pairs where the first element of the pair is a key symbol and the second element is the value for that key). See also build-aux-from-path. See create-embedding-executable for a list that applies to both stand-alone executables and launchers on Windows and Mac OS X GRacket; the following additional associations apply to launchers:
'independent? (Windows) —
a boolean; #t creates an old-style launcher that work with any Racket or GRacket binary, like setup-plt.exe. No other aux associations are used for an old-style launcher.
'exe-name (Mac OS X, 'script-3m or 'script-cgc variant) —
provides the base name for a '3m-/'cgc-variant launcher, which the script will call ignoring args. If this name is not provided, the script will go through the GRacket executable as usual.
'exe-is-gracket (when 'exe-name is used) —
indicates that 'exe-name refers to the GRacket executable, which is potentially in a "lib" subdirectory instead of with other GUI applications.
'relative? (all platforms) —
a boolean, where #t means that the generated launcher should find the base GRacket executable through a relative path.
'install-mode (Windows, Unix) —
either 'user or 'main, indicates that the launcher is being installed to a user-specific place or to an installation-wide place, which in turn determines where to record 'start-menu, 'extension-registry, and/or 'desktop information.
'start-menu (Windows) —
a boolean or real number; #t indicates that the launcher should be in the Start menu by an installer that includes the launcher. A number value is treated like #t, but also requests that the installer automatically start the application, where the number determines a precedence relative to other launchers that may request starting. A 'start-menu value is used only when 'install-mode is also specified.
'extension-register (Windows) —
a list of document types for file-extension registrations to be performed by an installer. Each document type is described by a list of six items:
a human-readable string describing the document type, such as "Racket Document";
a string to use as a key for the document type, such as "Racket.Document";
a list of strings, where each string is a file extension without the dot, such as '("rkt" "rktl" "rktd");
a path to a file that supplies the icon, such as "doc.ico";
a string to represent the command line to handle a document with a matching extension, such as "\"%1\"", where the string will be prefixed with a path to the launcher, and where %1 will be replaced with the document path
An 'extension-registry value is used only when 'install-mode is also specified.
'desktop (Unix) —
a string containing the content of a ".desktop" file for the launcher, where Exec and Icon entries are added automatically. If an Exec entry exists in the string, and if its value starts with a non-empty sequence of alpha-numeric ASCII characters followed by a space, then the space and remainder of the value is appended to the automatically generated value. The ".desktop" file is written to the directory produced by (find-apps-dir) or (find-user-apps-dir). A 'desktop value is used only when 'install-mode is also specified.
'png (Unix) : An icon file path (suffix ".png") to be referenced by a ".desktop" file (if any); a 'png value takes precedence over a 'ico value, but neither is used unless a 'desktop value is also present.
'ico (Unix, in addition to more general Windows use) : An icon file path (suffix ".ico") that is used in the same way as 'png if no 'png value is available.
For Unix/X, the script created by make-mred-launcher detects and handles X Windows flags specially when they appear as the initial arguments to the script. Instead of appending these arguments to the end of args, they are spliced in after any X Windows flags already listed in args. The remaining arguments (i.e., all script flags and arguments after the last X Windows flag or argument) are then appended after the spliced args.
(make-gracket-program-launcher file collection dest) → void? file : string? collection : string? dest : path-string?
(make-racket-program-launcher file collection dest) → void? file : string? collection : string? dest : path-string?
(install-gracket-program-launcher file collection name) → void? file : string? collection : string? name : string?
(make-gracket-program-launcher file collection (gracket-program-launcher-path name))
(install-racket-program-launcher file collection name) → void? file : string? collection : string? name : string?
(make-racket-program-launcher file collection (racket-program-launcher-path name))
args : (listof string?) dest : path-string? aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c)) = null
(make-mred-program-launcher file collection dest) → void? file : string? collection : string? dest : path-string?
(install-mred-program-launcher file collection name) → void? file : string? collection : string? name : string?
args : (listof string?) dest : path-string? aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c)) = null
(make-mzscheme-program-launcher file collection dest) → void? file : string? collection : string? dest : path-string?
(install-mzscheme-program-launcher file collection name) → void? file : string? collection : string? name : string?
(gracket-program-launcher-path name [ #:user? user?]) → path? name : string? user? : any/c = #f
(racket-program-launcher-path name [ #:user? user?]) → path? name : string? user? : any/c = #f
If GRacket launchers for the current platform were directories form the user’s perspective, the style result is suitable for use with get-directory, and the extension result may be a string indicating a required extension for the directory name.
(installed-executable-path->desktop-path exec-path user?) → (and/c path? complete-path?) exec-path : path-string? user? : any/c
(installed-desktop-path->icon-path desktop-path user? suffix) → (and/c path? complete-path?) desktop-path : path-string? user? : any/c suffix : bytes?
dest : path-string? aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c))
dest : path-string? aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c))
".icns" → 'icns file for use on Mac OS X
".ico" → 'ico file for use on Windows or Unix
".png" → 'png file for use on Unix
".lch" → 'independent? as #t (the file content is ignored) for use on Windows
".creator" → 'creator as the initial four characters in the file for use on Mac OS X
".filetypes" → 'file-types as read content (a single S-expression), and 'resource-files as a list constructed by finding "CFBundleTypeIconFile" entries in 'file-types (and filtering duplicates); for use on Mac OS X
".utiexports" → 'uti-exports as read content (a single S-expression); for use on Mac OS X
".wmclass" → 'wm-class as the literal content, removing a trailing newline if any; for use on Unix
".desktop" → 'desktop as the literal content; for use on Unix
".startmenu" → 'start-menu as the file content if it reads as a real number, #t otherwise, for use on Windows
".extreg" → 'extension-register as read content (a single S-expression), but with relative (to the ".extreg" file) paths converted absolute; for use on Windows
(current-launcher-variant variant) → void? variant : symbol?
dest : path-string? aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c))
dest : path-string? aux : (listof (cons/c symbol? any/c))
|(require launcher/launcher-sig)||package: compiler-lib|
launcher^ : signature
|(require launcher/launcher-unit)||package: compiler-lib|
Added in version 6.3 of package base.
(find-matching-library-path exe-path library-str) → (or/c #f string?) exe-path : path-string? library-str : string?
(update-matching-library-path exe-path library-str library-path-str) → void? exe-path : path-string? library-str : string? library-path-str : string?
A single match is expected, and the update assumes enough space for the new path, perhaps because the executable is linked with -headerpad_max_install_names.